HISTORIA DE LOS RECEPTORES HORMONALES Y DE LA TERAPIA HORMONAL EN CÁNCER DE MAMA

  • Laura Margarita Bolaño Guerra Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
  • Diana L. Rodríguez Orihuela Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
  • Enrique Soto-Pérez-de-Celis Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
  • Yanin Chávarri-Guerra Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
Palabras clave: Cáncer de mama, receptor de estrógenos, tratamiento endócrino

Resumen

El cáncer de mama (CM) es la segunda neoplasia más común a nivel mundial y el cáncer más frecuente en mujeres. En los últimos años se han logrado diversos avances en la detección temprana, tratamiento y comprensión de la biología de esta enfermedad. La heterogeneidad biológica del CM tiene implicaciones tanto en el pronóstico, como en la toma de decisiones terapéuticas. Probablemente uno de los éxitos más importantes a principios del siglo XX, fue la alteración del entorno endócrino interno tumoral a través de la terapia hormonal. El descubrimiento de la terapia endocrina permitió pasar de tratamientos ablativos quirúrgicos y quimioterapias agresivas, a administrar terapias dirigidas, mejor toleradas y que mejoran la calidad de vida en mujeres con CM hormonodependiente. El fundamento de la terapia endocrina es la dependencia bien demostrada de la mama a la estimulación hormonal. En los años 1970’s, el modulador selectivo del receptor de estrógeno, tamoxifeno emerge como una nueva terapia para mujeres con CM avanzado; en las décadas subsecuentes, surgen numerosas y diversas terapias endocrinas selectivas, como los agonistas de la liberación de hormona luteinizante y los inhibidores de aromatasa, como una estrategia adicional en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. Estas terapias fueron estudiadas de manera inicial en el escenario metastásico y posteriormente fueron adoptadas en el escenario adyuvante, en mujeres con enfermedad temprana. De manera más reciente se han descubierto los inhibidores de cinasa dependiente de ciclina, que asociados a la terapia hormonal han logrado una mejoría significativa en desenlaces clínicos y tasas de respuestas. En este artículo realizaremos una revisión cronológica de los principales hitos en la evolución de la terapia endocrina a lo largo de los últimos 100 años, destacando cada clase de agente y los ensayos claves que han llevado a cambios en la práctica moderna.

Biografía del autor

Laura Margarita Bolaño Guerra, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
Departamento de Hemato-Oncología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México.
Diana L. Rodríguez Orihuela, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
Departamento de Anatomía Patológica, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México.
Enrique Soto-Pérez-de-Celis, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
Servicio de Geriatría, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México.
Yanin Chávarri-Guerra, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México
Departamento de Hemato-Oncología, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Ciudad de México, México.

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Publicado
2021-04-20
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