HISTORIA DEL CÁNCER DE PULMÓN: DESDE DOLL Y HILL HASTA LAS TERAPIAS DE PRECISIÓN

  • Oscar Arrieta Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México
  • Andrés F. Cardona Fundación para la Investigación Clínica y Molecular Aplicada del Cáncer – FICMAC, Bogotá
  • Zyania Lucía Zatarain-Barron Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México
  • Christian Rolfo Universidad de Maryland, Baltimore
  • Camila Ordoñez Fundación para la Investigación Clínica y Molecular Aplicada del Cáncer, Bogotá
  • Alejandro Ruíz Patiño Fundación para la Investigación Clínica y Molecular Aplicada del Cáncer – FICMAC, Bogotá, Colombia.
  • Rafael Rosell Instituto Catalán de Oncología, Barcelona, España
Palabras clave: cáncer de pulmón, tabaco, historia del tabaquismo, carcinoma de pulmón de células no pequeñas, quimioterapia, terapia dirigida, inmunoterapia

Resumen

El cáncer de pulmón fue una vez una enfermedad muy rara, tan rara que los médicos prestaban especial atención cuando se enfrentaban a un caso, pensando que era una entidad única. La mecanización y la publicidad masiva instaurada hacia finales del siglo XIX popularizaron el hábito del cigarrillo, sin embargo, causaron una epidemia global de cáncer de pulmón. Los cigarrillos fueron reconocidos como la causa primaria de la epidemia en las décadas de 1940 y 1950, con la confluencia de estudios epidemiológicos, experimentos con animales, patología celular y análisis bioquímicos. A pesar del enorme nihilismo generado por el cáncer de pulmón a nivel mundial, se han logrado avances notables en los últimos 50 años. Durante varios años, el papel de la quimioterapia se calificó con frecuencia como tóxico e ineficaz. No obstante, los regímenes basados en platino se establecieron después de demostrar un beneficio inequívoco, tanto en términos de aumento de las tasas de curación en el entorno adyuvante, y multimodal en etapas más avanzadas de la enfermedad donde mejora la calidad y duración de la vida. Las terapias dirigidas y la inmunoterapia han surgido en la última década como tratamientos verdaderamente efectivos para la enfermedad metastásica, y actualmente se están evaluando en estados más tempranos de la enfermedad. En la actualidad, el cáncer de pulmón es la enfermedad que aglutina las mayores variaciones terapéuticas gracias a la innovación de nuevos fármacos y formatos de diagnóstico mediante la genómica.

Biografía del autor

Oscar Arrieta, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México
Sección Oncología Torácica y Laboratorio de Medicina Personalizada del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México, México.
Andrés F. Cardona, Fundación para la Investigación Clínica y Molecular Aplicada del Cáncer – FICMAC, Bogotá
Fundación para la Investigación Clínica y Molecular Aplicada del Cáncer – FICMAC, Bogotá, Colombia. Grupo Oncología Clínica y Traslacional, Clínica del Country, Bogotá, Colombia. Grupo de Investigación en Oncología Molecular y Sistemas Biológicos (FoxG), Universidad El Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia. Sección Oncología Torácica y Laboratorio de Medicina Personalizada del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México, México.
Zyania Lucía Zatarain-Barron, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México
Sección Oncología Torácica y Laboratorio de Medicina Personalizada del Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología – INCaN, Ciudad de México, México.
Christian Rolfo, Universidad de Maryland, Baltimore
Departamento Oncología Clínica, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland, Estados Unidos.
Rafael Rosell, Instituto Catalán de Oncología, Barcelona, España
Programa de Biología del Cáncer y Medicina de Precisión, Instituto Catalán de Oncología, Barcelona, España.

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Publicado
2021-04-20
Sección
Perspectiva del diagnóstico y Tratamiento del Cancer