DEL COVID-19 AL POSCOVID-19: LECCIONES Y DESAFÍOS

  • Carolina Ramírez-Santana Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
  • Yeni Acosta-Ampudia Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
  • Diana M. Monsalve Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
  • Manuel Rojas Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
Palabras clave: SARS-CoV-2, Covid-19, sindrome poscovid, autoinmunidad, inflamación

Resumen

La enfermedad por el coronavirus (COVID-19) es causada por el nuevo coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Esta enfermedad es asintomática o leve en aproximadamente el 80 % de los casos, y severa o crítica en el 20 % restante. La COVID-19 fue considerada inicialmente una enfermedad pulmonar, pero ahora se reconoce como una enfermedad multiorgánica con un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas. Algunos pacientes que sufren una infección aguda por SARS-CoV-2 desarrollan una amplia variedad de síntomas persistentes que no se resuelven en el transcurso de muchos meses. Esta condición es conocida como síndrome post-covid-19 (SPC). La respuesta inflamatoria persistente, la desregulación de la respuesta inmune innata y adaptativa, la presencia de autoinmunidad latente y autoinmunidad manifiesta y los reservorios persistentes de SARS-CoV-2 en ciertos tejidos pueden ser responsables de la severidad de la enfermedad en la infección aguda y de las secuelas del SPC. En este artículo presentamos la interacción del SARS-CoV-2 con el sistema inmune y la posterior contribución de las respuestas inmunes disfuncionales en la progresión de la enfermedad. Finalmente, destacamos las implicaciones de las intervenciones terapéuticas dirigidas para controlar la infección viral y regular la respuesta inmune.

Biografía del autor

Carolina Ramírez-Santana, Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.
Yeni Acosta-Ampudia, Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.
Diana M. Monsalve, Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.
Manuel Rojas, Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA)
Centro de Estudio de Enfermedades Autoinmunes (CREA), Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia.

Citas

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Publicado
2022-04-28
Sección
Artículos de Revisión