El RIESGOS DE SER UN ASTRONAUTA: HÉROES DEL ESPACIO.

RIESGOS DE SER UN ASTRONAUTA

  • Jhan Sebastian Saavedra Torres Universidad del Cauca
Palabras clave: Palabras clave: Astronautas, sistema cardiovascular; cáncer; osteoporosis; enfermedades espaciales; alteraciones de conducta; evaluación de riesgos; vuelo espacial; programas espaciales.

Resumen

RESUMEN:   Objetivo: Realizar un artículo de reflexión y revisión documental, acerca de los riesgos, complicaciones y cambios fisiológicos que experimenta los astronautas bajo la ausencia de gravedad y exposición a dosis de radiación cósmica. Metodología: Se desarrolló una revisión bibliográfica en un margen de tiempo de 38 años, entre 1980 y 2018, con el objetivo de analizar la evidencia actual validada que abordan los estudios sobre os riesgos, complicaciones y cambios fisiológicos que experimenta los astronautas en los viajes espaciales, y sus implicaciones clínicas y biológicas. De ese modo, se recolectó un total de 821 bibliografías, de las cuales se lograron tamizar y referenciar 85 bibliografías, a partir de la búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos oficial de la NASA: NTRS - NASA Technical Reports Server.  https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp; La búsqueda se limitó a la revisión de artículos originales, informes de la agencia espacial, libros de medicina aero espacial, resúmenes de ponencias y experimentos publicados en el idioma inglés por parte de la NASA; no se usaron los términos MeSH, porque la base de datos oficial de la NASA permite el análisis detallado por temas, sin ingresar formulas o términos de búsqueda de sus propios estudios. Para la gestión y la organización de la información, se utilizó el programa de libre acceso Mendeley. Resultados y conclusión: Los estudios describen que la exposición a la radiación ionizante y la falta de gravedad en astronautas, son factores de riesgos determinantes para padecer enfermedades y cambios fisiológicos de importancia, antes y después de una misión espacial de larga duración. Sin embargo las agencias espaciales reducen todos los riesgos con entrenamientos, herramientas tecnológicas, análisis clínicos y genealógicos de los tripulantes de una misión interplanetaria.   Palabras clave: Astronautas, sistema cardiovascular; cáncer; osteoporosis; enfermedades espaciales; alteraciones de conducta; evaluación de riesgos; vuelo espacial; programas espaciales.  

Citas

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Publicado
2019-06-03
Sección
Artículos de Revisión