Implicaciones de los hábitos tóxicos en el cáncer

  • Diego Andrés Chavarro-Carvajal Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
  • Elkin García-Cifuentes Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
  • Mauricio Acosta Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
Palabras clave: hábitos, tabaquismo, alcohol, etanol, cafeína, habits, smoking, ethanol, caffeine.


Los hábitos nocivos pueden provocar daños a corto o largo plazo. Se clasifican en: hábitos de riesgo y hábitos tóxicos. Esta revisión se enfoca en analizar los hábitos tóxicos y cómo se relacionan con la aparición de procesos neoplásicos. En la literatura, se ha descrito ampliamente la relación que existe entre diferentes agentes químicos o físicos que se asocian con la génesis de neoplasia, enfatizando en el consumo de tabaco, el alcohol (etanol) y el café. El tabaco se produce a partir de las hojas de la Nicotiana tabacum. Su principal forma de consumo es a través de la combustión y aún hoy, 53 años después de que el Comité Asesor del Director General de Sanidad publicara su informe en 1964 advirtiendo de sus efectos nocivos, persiste su aparición como la principal causa de mortalidad prevenible por cáncer. Por otra parte, el alcohol constituye la principal droga consumida en nuestra sociedad. Actualmente, se encuentran todo tipo de bebidas con diferentes concentraciones de alcohol. Se define como consumo moderado la ingesta de una bebida por día para mujeres y dos tragos por día para los hombres; mientras que se concibe como exceso el consumo mayor a tres bebidas cualquier día o siete bebidas por semana en mujeres y más de cuatro bebidas al día o catorce bebidas a la semana en hombres. Adicionalmente, la cafeína se encuentra principalmente en el café, es una sustancia ampliamente consumida y culturalmente aceptada. Los estudios sobre el papel que desempeñan sus componentes han sido controversiales y se plantean diversos retos en su investigación. Cancer toxic habit risksAbstractNoxious habits can be harmful in the short and long term. They are classified into risk habits and toxic habits. We focus this review paper on toxic habits and its relation to the onset of neoplastic processes. The relationship between chemical and physical agents and the genesis of neoplasia has been widely described through literature, making emphasis on tobacco, alcohol (ethanol) and coffee. Tobacco is made out of the leaves of the Nicotiana tabacum. It is mainly consumed by the inhalation of its base after combustion, and even now a days 53 years after the Advisory Committee Director General of Health, published its 1964 report, where they warned the community about the tobacco harmful effects, it still remains the main cause of preventable cancer mortality. In addition, alcohol (ethanol) is the most consumed drug in our society; currently all kind of beverages with different concentration of alcohol levels are available. Moderate consumption is defined as no more than one drink per day for females, and two drinks for males, whereas excessive consumption is defined as more than three drinks in one day or more than 7 per week for females, and more than four in one day or more than 14 drinks for males. Furthermore, caffeine is mainly found in coffee, it is a widely consumed and culturally accepted substance. The investigations concerning the role of its components have been controversial, dealing with a variety of challenges during the research.

Biografía del autor

Diego Andrés Chavarro-Carvajal, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
MD, Esp, MSc. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Instituto de Envejecimiento. Semillero de Neurociencias y Envejecimiento (SNE). Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
Elkin García-Cifuentes, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
MD. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Instituto de Envejecimiento. Semillero de Neurociencias y Envejecimiento (SNE). Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.
Mauricio Acosta, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá
MD. Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Instituto de Envejecimiento. Semillero de Neurociencias y Envejecimiento (SNE). Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.


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